Know about ceramic history.
China is the hometown of porcelain. The invention of Bai porcelain is the great contribution of the Chinese nation to the world culture. In English, "China" has become the pronoun of "China Dao". About the 16th century B.C., early porcelain appeared in China in the middle of the Shang Dynasty. It is generally called "primitive porcelain" because it is still rough on the matrix or in the firing process of the glaze layer, and the firing temperature is low, showing the primordial and transitional properties.
Porcelain was born out of pottery, and its invention was gradually explored by ancient Chinese ancestors in the experience of firing white pottery and printed hard pottery. There are three conditions for firing porcelain: first, the raw material of porcelain must be porcelain stone, porcelain clay or kaolin rich in minerals such as quartz and sericite; second, the firing temperature must be above 1200 ℃; the third is that the surface of the ware is glazed under high temperature. This original celadon statue is a typical example of primitive porcelain. The mouth of the vessel is trumpet shaped, without shoulders, with a deep abdomen around the waist, and a ring foot with outer curling at the bottom. The carcass is hard, uniform in thickness and regular in shape. Both inside and outside of the ware are covered with blue yellow glaze, and the carcass is closely combined with the glaze layer. The decorative patterns on the outer wall are arranged in order, simple and elegant. This statue is now in Shanghai Museum.
As a product of the transition period from pottery to porcelain, primitive porcelain has the characteristics of dense, durable, easy to clean and beautiful appearance compared with various kinds of pottery, so it has a broad development prospect. The continuous improvement of the level and output of original porcelain laid a foundation for the gradual replacement of pottery by porcelain as the main utensil in Chinese daily life.
Chinese porcelain evolved from pottery. The original porcelain originated more than 3000 years ago. By the Song Dynasty, famous porcelain kilns had spread over most of China, which was the most prosperous period of porcelain industry. At that time, Jun kiln, Ge kiln, Guan kiln, Ru kiln and Ding kiln were called five famous kilns. The blue and white porcelain produced in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province, which is known as the porcelain capital, has become the representative of porcelain in Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white porcelain enamel transparent as water, the matrix is thin and light, white porcelain coated with blue decoration, elegant and fresh, full of vitality. Blue and white porcelain became popular once it appeared, and became the crown of traditional famous porcelain in Jingdezhen. And blue and white porcelain together known as the four famous porcelain are blue and white Linglong porcelain, Famille Rose Porcelain and color glazed porcelain. In addition, there are sculpture porcelain, thin bodied porcelain, multicolored fetal porcelain and so on, all of which are exquisite and have their own characteristics.
The colorful porcelain is one of the great inventions of ancient China. The word "China" and "China" are the same in English, which fully shows that China's porcelain is so exquisite that it can be regarded as the representative of China.
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